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Solar history - from the moment of inspiration to weird wearables
Although solar technology is now very popular, it is not a complete invention in a short time. After more than two centuries of research, this technology has been improved. However, in this long time, the source of inspiration for solar cells has not changed, that is the brightest star in the universe sildenafil citrate 100mg - the sun!
The energy released by the sun gives us life. Plants use sunlight to make their own food, which in turn feeds the animal. Humans rely on plants and animals for nutrition.
Collecting solar energy, an inexhaustible source of energy, can also serve a number of specific activities. By installing "solar collectors" such as solar cells on the roofs, children in remote areas can also study at night; installing large-scale photovoltaic modules in the gymnasium, fans can still enjoy the exciting events after the sun goes down.
Now, solar technology has made great strides. But before these glittering blue squares were generally found on the roofs of residential and commercial buildings, the sun's history had become a necessary source of electricity for mankind.
As early as the seventh century BC, man uses a magnifying glass to concentrate the sunlight on the fire, even annoying annoying ants! During the 3rd century BC, Greeks and Romans often lit their torches with fire-mounted mirrors during religious ceremonies.
In 212 BC, the ancient Greek scientist Archimedes helped put Syracuse against the siege and attacks of the Roman army by using a clever device. He gathered a few mirrors of reflections on the enemy ship, and a few minutes later, the enemy's sailing vessel actually began to burn! Archimedes is undoubtedly the ancestor of the use of solar energy.
As time goes on, people tend to get more light when designing and building their houses. Justinian I, the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, believed that sunshine was the most basic human right. He incorporated "lighting rights" into the "Justinian Civil Law Encyclopedia" (Park 534) and promised to have sun rooms in public buildings and houses in order to give the people a warm and natural light.
In 1767, the Swiss scientist Horace de Saussure invented the world's first solar collector.
The invention helped scientists, astronomers and explorers, Sir John Herschel, to use solar energy to make food to survive in its 1830 South African expedition.
In 1816 Rev. Robert Stirling left the Scottish Church and invented a heat engine at home, which was used in the Stirling system as a solar thermal power generation technology.
From glass to mirrors to solar collectors, the invention of solar power generation equipment is close at hand, and the next urgent problem to be solved is conductivity.
In the 19th century, solar technology made a series of improvements in conductivity, so more light was able to generate electricity.
In 1839, the French scientist Edmond Becquerel discovered that when it was exposed to light, its power generation capacity was increased when an electrolytic cell consisting of two electrodes was placed in a conducting solution for testing. This is the first recorded example of a photovoltaic effect.
For the next half-century, scientists accelerated the pace of light-induced research. In 1873, Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of selenium. Three years later, William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day found that selenium has power generation properties when exposed to light. This is an eye-opening discovery - some solids can convert light into electricity without heating or moving parts!
Less than ten years later, selenium research reached a turning point. American Charles Fritts overlays a thin layer of gold on a selenium semiconductor to form a semiconducting metal junction. This brings about 1% conversion efficiency - converting light directly into electricity. Although this material is too expensive for mass production, Fritz is credited with being the first person to come up with the concept of solar power.
This also triggered a wave of photosensitivity research in the early 21st century. New materials such as copper and cuprous oxide were introduced. In 1908, William J. Bailley of Carnegie Steel Company invented a solar collector made of copper coils and a heat-insulated box. This design is still used today.
In 1918, research into solar technology entered the silicon era. A wave of research was initiated by Polish chemist Jan Czochralski in the invention of a method for the extraction of monocrystalline silicon.
In 1954, Daryl Chapin of Bell Labs tried to find a way to make the phone work in remote areas - batteries of the 1950s were not able to last long in hot and humid places. His colleagues, Gerald Pearson and Calvin Fuller, are working on the development of solid-state rectifiers using crystalline silicon that converts AC to DC. At that time, photovoltaic cells made of selenium, only 5 watts of electricity generated per square meter, the conversion rate was only 0.5%. Chapin hopes to raise it to 6%!
As time went by, researchers introduced gallium into the crystal matrix and covered a layer of hot lithium. When this crystal is exposed to light, Pearson found that light energy generated a current! Another major discovery came when Fuller introduced vaporized phosphorous into silicon and finally reached its target of 6% conversion! At the same time, it also allows the phone to be used in remote areas.
Advances in battery materials mark the advent of solar energy for everyday use by humans.
Solar energy invention
In the mid-twentieth century after World War II, researchers saw the need of industry development and social progress, and therefore paid more attention to solar energy research.
In 1964, the U.S. satellite launched by NASA was powered by a 470-watt solar cell. Just a year later, Peter Glaser proposed the idea of building a solar satellite station. It is because of these advances in the fields of aviation and photovoltaics that human beings can explore unknown universes, anticipate the weather and connect to any part of the world faster.
In 1970, people began to shift the application of solar cells to the general livelihood use, especially in remote areas. In 1972, a village elementary school in Niger received a gift from France - an educational television powered by a cadmium sulfide photovoltaic system.
In 1973, the University of Delaware built the world's first home to use photovoltaic and thermal hybrid power systems, and was named Solar One. Now you can see thin film solar cells on the windows and walls of houses - which also makes it absorb more sunlight. Coupled with advances in lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries, storing energy into electricity for those who are away from the grid has become simpler and more viable than it was ten years ago.
In 2006 Tesla conducted a game in the field of electric vehicles. Founders Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning began experimenting with breathtaking designs and advanced components including heated seats, satellite navigation and lithium-ion batteries. The electric car was developed to achieve an incredible 97 km / h acceleration in 3.9 seconds and 320 km per charge.
The use of solar photovoltaic is also common in the open sea, such as hybrid boats and yachts use solar energy to provide cruising horsepower. According to the 2010 Guinness Book of Records, the largest solar vessel is the MS TURANOR PlanetSolar, measuring 31 meters long and covering 537 square meters of the hull covered by 93 kilowatts of solar panels. This also allows the ship to rely solely on solar power for 27 days of voyage to cross the Atlantic at the fastest rate of 14 knots.
Photovoltaic power plants also replace many of the world's power plants that rely on fossil-fueled fuels, helping to reduce pollution and reduce carbon emissions and allow people to enjoy clean energy. In 2015, Yingli and renewable energy developer Namene planned to develop a total of 100 megawatts of large-scale power plant projects and a 50-megawatt commercial rooftop photovoltaic project in Ghana and neighboring countries.
Now portable solar devices are becoming more and more popular. But can you imagine solar bikini? Andrew Schneider of New York, USA, developed a solar-powered bikini in 2011 to recharge his cellphone or music player while the wearer was sunbathing in a bikini port. Each solar-powered bikini uses as thin as 40 sheets of paper, a pliable, flexible light-current panel sewn with soft conductive wire and terminated with a USB port.
If the above inventions are not enough to surprise you, then the invention to be introduced will probably surprise you. Beijing's "Airbus" is powered by electricity. Some of the electricity is supplied by solar energy equipment and can accommodate 1,200 passengers. It is also possible for small and medium-sized cars to travel normally at the bottom.
Technical invention is imperative! As adventurer Raphael Domjan, PlanetSolar's founder, puts it: "We encourage engineers and scientists to develop inspiring innovations that demonstrate that we can make the impossible happen."